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The causative agent of moniliformosis M. m. Siciliensis, males of which are 40-45 mm parasites 1-1.5 mm wide, having 14 rows of hooks on the proboscis. The posterior end of the body is smooth, anteriorly segmented. In the sexually mature stage, it parasitizes in the digestive system of mice and garden dormouse. Spiny-headed worms do not have a digestive and circulatory system, nutrition occurs osmotically. It was first described on the island of Sicily in a person who, during self-infection, swallowed helminth larvae obtained from the darkling beetle. After a single dose of the ethereal extract of the male fern root, about 50 acanthocephalans came off, and recovery began.

Parasites M. m. Moniliformis, males of which are individuals with a body length of 40-86 mm, and females - 70 mm, have a widthbody inu 2 mm. In the sexually mature stage, they can parasitize in the body of a dog, fox, ferret, and birds. In the larval stage, the intermediate hosts are cockroaches and black beetles. The defeat of these helminths in humans was first described in 1927 in Sudan.

The causative agents of macracanthorhynchosis are giant acanthocephalans. Their male reaches up to 70-150 mm, and the female - up to 65 mm. The body is fusiform, on the proboscis there are 6 spiral rows of hooks. The eggs of such acanthocephalans have a rather dense shell and can remain viable in the external environment for up to two years. The intermediate host is the May beetle, ground beetle, rhinoceros beetle, dung beetle. The larvae can live in them up to 2-3 years. At the stage of puberty, they can parasitize in the body of pigs and other animals. Humans can accidentally become infected by ingesting insects. Symptoms of moniliformosis are pronounced. 20 days after infection, diarrhea and severe pain in the abdomen occur. After 35 days, stool analysis shows the presence of acanthocephalan eggs. The clinical picture of helminthiasis moniliformosis is characterized by abdominal pain, frequent stools mixed with mucus, anorexia, fever, bloating, weakness, eosinophilic leukocytosis.